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Persistent sulfate formation from London Fog to Chinese haze
Wang, Gehui1,2,3,4,5,25; Zhang, Renyi3,4,6; Gomez, Mario E.3,4,7; Yang, Lingxiao3,8; Zamora, Misti Levy3; Hu, Min6; Lin, Yun3; Peng, Jianfei3,6; Guo, Song3,6; Meng, Jingjing1,2,9; Li, Jianjun1,2; Cheng, Chunlei1,2,9; Hu, Tafeng1,2; Ren, Yanqin1,2,9; Wang, Yuesi10; Gao, Jian11; Cao, Junji1,2; An, Zhisheng1,2,12; Zhou, Weijian1,2,13; Li, Guohui1,2; Wang, Jiayuan1,2,9; Tian, Pengfei3,14; Marrero-Ortiz, Wilmarie3,4; Secrest, Jeremiah3,4; Du, Zhuofei6; Zheng, Jing6; Shang, Dongjie6; Zeng, Limin6; Shao, Min6; Wang, Weigang3,15,16; Huang, Yao1,2,9; Wang, Yuan17; Zhu, Yujiao3,18; Li, Yixin3; Hu, Jiaxi3; Pan, Bowen3; Cai, Li3,19; Cheng, Yuting1,2,9; Ji, Yuemeng3,20; Zhang, Fang3,12; Rosenfeld, Daniel3,21; Liss, Peter S.3,22; Duce, Robert A.3; Kolb, Charles E.3,23; Molina, Mario J.24
AbstractSulfate aerosols exert profound impacts on human and ecosystem health, weather, and climate, but their formation mechanism remains uncertain. Atmospheric models consistently underpredict sulfate levels under diverse environmental conditions. From atmospheric measurements in two Chinese megacities and complementary laboratory experiments, we show that the aqueous oxidation of SO2 by NO2 is key to efficient sulfate formation but is only feasible under two atmospheric conditions: on fine aerosols with high relative humidity and NH3 neutralization or under cloud conditions. Under polluted environments, this SO2 oxidation process leads to large sulfate production rates and promotes formation of nitrate and organic matter on aqueous particles, exacerbating severe haze development. Effective haze mitigation is achievable by intervening in the sulfate formation process with enforced NH3 and NO2 control measures. In addition to explaining the polluted episodes currently occurring in China and during the 1952 London Fog, this sulfate production mechanism is widespread, and our results suggest a way to tackle this growing problem in China and much of the developing world.
KeywordSulfate Aerosol Severe Haze Pollution Human Health Climate
Indexed BySCI
Document Type期刊论文
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, State Key Lab Loess & Quaternary Geol, Inst Earth Environm, Xian 710061, Peoples R China
2.Chinese Acad Sci, Key Lab Aerosol Chem & Phys, Inst Earth Environm, Xian 710061, Peoples R China
3.Texas A&M Univ, Dept Atmospher Sci, College Stn, TX 77843 USA
4.Texas A&M Univ, Dept Chem, College Stn, TX 77840 USA
5.East China Normal Univ, Sch Geog Sci, Shanghai 200062, Peoples R China
6.Peking Univ, State Key Joint Lab Environm Simulat & Pollut Con, Coll Environm Sci & Engn, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China
7.Florida Int Univ, Dept Chem & Biochem, Miami, FL 33199 USA
8.Shandong Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Jinan 250100, Peoples R China
9.Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China
10.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Atmospher Phys, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China
11.Chinese Res Inst Environm Sci, Beijing 100000, Peoples R China
12.Beijing Normal Univ, Beijing 100875, Peoples R China
13.Xi An Jiao Tong Univ, Xian 710049, Peoples R China
14.Lanzhou Univ, Coll Atmospher Sci, Key Lab Semiarid Climate Change, Minist Educ, Lanzhou 730000, Peoples R China
15.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Chem, State Key Lab Struct Chem Unstable & Stable Speci, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China
16.Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing Natl Lab Mol Sci, Inst Chem, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China
17.CALTECH, Jet Prop Lab, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA
18.Ocean Univ China, Minist Educ, Key Lab Marine Environm Sci & Ecol, Qingdao 266100, Peoples R China
19.Wuhan Univ, Sch Elect Engn, Wuhan 430072, Peoples R China
20.Guangdong Univ Technol, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Inst Environm Hlth & Pollut Control, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, Peoples R China
21.Hebrew Univ Jerusalem, Inst Earth Sci, Program Atmospher Sci, IL-91904 Jerusalem, Israel
22.Univ East Anglia, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich NR4 7TJ, Norfolk, England
23.Aerodyne Res Inc, Billerica, MA 01821 USA
24.Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Chem & Biochem, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA
25.Chinese Acad Sci, Ctr Excellence Reg Atmospher Environm, Inst Urban Environm, Xiamen 361021, Peoples R China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Wang, Gehui,Zhang, Renyi,Gomez, Mario E.,et al. Persistent sulfate formation from London Fog to Chinese haze[J]. PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,2016,113(48):13630-13635.
APA Wang, Gehui.,Zhang, Renyi.,Gomez, Mario E..,Yang, Lingxiao.,Zamora, Misti Levy.,...&Molina, Mario J..(2016).Persistent sulfate formation from London Fog to Chinese haze.PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,113(48),13630-13635.
MLA Wang, Gehui,et al."Persistent sulfate formation from London Fog to Chinese haze".PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 113.48(2016):13630-13635.
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