Graphdiyne (GDY), a novel large pi-conjugated carbon material, for the first time, is introduced as the hole transfer layer into a photoelectrochemical water splitting. cell (PEC). Raman and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopic studies indicate the existence of relatively strong pi-pi interactions between GDY and 4-mercaptopyridine surface-functionalized CdSe quantum dots, beneficial to the hole transportation and enhancement of the photocurrent performance. Upon exposure to a Xe lamp, the integrated photocathode produces a current density of nearly -70 mu A cm(-2) at a potential of 0 V vs NHE in neutral aqueous solution. Simultaneously, the photocathode evolves H-2 with 90 +/- 5% faradic efficiency over three times and exhibits good stability within 12 h. All of the results indicate that GDY is a promising hole transfer material to fabricate a PEC device for water splitting by solar energy.