Polar aprotic solvents are considered to act as cosolvents with ionic liquids (ILs) for cellulose, strengthening the solvating ability of ILs by improving their cellulose solvating kinetics without influencing the solubility of cellulose in ILs. In this work, it was found that dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) at low concentration improves the cellulose solvating ability of [AMIM][Cl], but weakens it at high concentration. To clarify the mechanism of these dual effects of DMSO on the cellulose solvating ability of [AMIM][Cl], the [AMIM][Cl]/DMSO system was investigated using excess infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) T (2) relaxometry, H-1 NMR, Cl-35 NMR, and dynamic light scattering. The results indicate that the tight association between the cation and anion in the [AMIM][Cl] network is loosened at low DMSO concentration. As a result, mass transport is accelerated due to the enhanced dynamics of [AMIM][Cl], promoting the cellulose solvating kinetics of [AMIM][Cl]. However, ion clusters of [AMIM][Cl] start to form when the molar fraction of DMSO (x (DMSO)) exceeds 0.5. The hydrogen bonds between cations and anions in the ion clusters become much stronger than in pure [AMIM][Cl], leading to decreased ability of [AMIM][Cl] to form hydrogen bonds with cellulose and thus decreased cellulose solubility in the [AMIM][Cl]/DMSO mixture.